Experts remind: the elderly easy to fall, things are not small, how to prevent is very important

2022-05-30 0 By

It was the middle of winter again.With the change of temperature, coupled with the decline of the elderly body function, there are old people fall things happen, no matter at home or go out, the elderly fall prevention is very important.Our newspaper invited expert Yang Chunhui to explain those things that old people fall down for everyone.Expert of this issue: Yang Chunhui, md, attending physician of orthopedic Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, graduated from Jilin University, has more than 10 years of clinical experience, can master the diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic diseases.Specialty: minimally invasive treatment of spinal diseases (lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, spinal fracture, etc.), orthopedic manipulation and limb trauma treatment.1. Why do old people fall down easily?1. Reduced gait stability and impaired balance are important causes of falls in the elderly.There is a close relationship between fall and gait continuity, straightness, step length, step height and stability.As a result of physical impairment, elderly people tend to take a small, unraised, incoherent walk, resulting in an increased risk of falling.At the same time, the functional degradation of skeletal muscle system will affect the elderly’s body movement ability, agility of gait, strength and tolerance, so that the elderly when moving feet are not high, slow walking, unstable balance, resulting in an increased risk of falling.2. The coordination of sensory organs, central nervous system and skeletal muscle functions in the elderly plays an important role in maintaining postural stability.It often affects intelligence, muscle tone, muscle strength, sensation, reflexes, reaction time, balance, gait, and the ability to coordinate movements, and increases the risk of falling.Most falls in the elderly are directly related to this.3. The sensory system of the elderly is weakened, which is often manifested as reduced vision, hearing, touch, proprioception and vestibular function, and attenuates sharply with age, resulting in increased risk factors for falls.4, with the gradual aging of the elderly body function, there will be some related diseases, such as recessive lacunar cerebral infarction, senile ignorance, cerebral apoplexy, cerebral edema, Parkinson’s disease, peripheral nerve disease;Some cardiovascular diseases, vertebral artery insufficiency, cerebral infarction, ischemic diseases;Diabetic patients with hypoglycemia and symptomatic hypotension can lead to dizziness, physical fatigue and accidentally fall;And waist and leg pain, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease and other induced symptoms are easy to fall.Two, what diseases are easily induced after the elderly fall?After the fall of the old people caused local swelling, pain and soft tissue abrasions, serious cases can appear lumbar compression fracture, femoral neck fracture, radial fracture and limb trunk fracture, more brain trauma and other physical injuries.Radial fractures are the most common. Due to the body’s inertia and subconscious movements, the palm usually hits the ground first when falling, which increases the risk of radial fractures.When the lower limb or trunk fracture, will generally experience bed, there may be bedsores, pendant pneumonia, venous thrombosis, muscle atrophy and other situations occur.These will make the living standard of the elderly significantly reduced, not only the cost of manpower and material resources, but also may make the elderly depressed, impatient, anxiety, self-confidence decline and other negative psychology, seriously affect the life and health quality of the elderly.Three, the elderly home how to prevent falling?The home is a common place for falls in older adults.You can do age-appropriate transformation of the home environment.For example, the ground anti-skid processing, in the toilet, toilet, stair and other positions to install handrails, remove the indoor ground height difference, improve indoor lighting and lighting, night light can be used, change the height and soft and hard sofa is not suitable, remove indoor items that will hinder the elderly.What need key explanation is, toilet is the “heavy ground” that the old person falls down, should let the old person wear slipper that prevent slippery and toilet should be equipped with prevent slippery mat when going to the toilet.Toilet can adopt the design that dry wet separates, or toilet can use prevent slippery floor tile.Also choose a sitting toilet and install handrails.Because joint of majority old person is bad, regular meeting causes next squat difficult, sit type closestool is safer, avoid occurrence to fall down an event.Four, how to walk out of the elderly slip?First of all, rain and snow weather should reduce the elderly go out as far as possible.If the elderly choose to go out, walk slowly, wear non-slip shoes that are not too large, keep your hands out of your pockets, and use a cane when necessary.To choose flat ground, less obstacles, handrails, good light sections to walk.Pay special attention to up and down stairs, stairs, to walk slowly, stand firm.If there are obstacles on the road, such as stones, ropes, pipes, etc., should be avoided as far as possible, choose to go around.If there is snow, water on the road, should walk slowly and slowly.Five, how to do after the old man falls alone?When the fall, only their own, should not immediately get up, should have a simple examination of their own body, if there is only slight pain, swelling, no other obvious discomfort, can get up for rest, then it is recommended to go to the nearest hospital in orthopedics specialist examination, to make sure there is no other situation.If there is obvious pain in the hips, limbs and torso with increased movement, do not stand up. Call emergency services and wait for professional assistance.Six, how to deal with the elderly fall?When the elderly fall, should check whether the breathing and heartbeat of the elderly is normal, consciousness is awake, there is no severe headache, crooked mouth, slurred speech and weakness of hands and feet and other hints of stroke;Whether there is pain, deformity, joint abnormality, abnormal limb position and other conditions indicating fracture;If not, can help the elderly slowly stand up, sit, lie to rest and observe, confirm no harm can leave;If need to move, should ensure smooth, as far as possible supine.In case of respiratory or cardiac arrest, emergency measures such as chest compressions and artificial respiration should be taken immediately.If vomiting occurs, head should be tilted to one side, and clean up vomit in the mouth and nose to ensure smooth breathing;If there is a convulsion, move to the flat soft ground or the body under the soft pad, to prevent touch, scratch, when necessary, the pad is hard, to prevent tongue bite, do not break the convulsive limbs, to prevent muscle and bone damage;If there is limb pain, deformity, joint abnormality, limb position abnormality and other indications of fracture, if there is no relevant professional knowledge, do not move, should immediately call the emergency call;Ask whether there is lumbar pain, back pain, leg movement or paresthesia and fecal incontinence, if there is, without relevant professional knowledge, do not move casually, so as not to aggravate the condition, should immediately call the emergency number.Seven, how to prevent the elderly fall?First, scientific exercise helps to reduce the risk of falling and fracture caused by falling, winter and holiday elderly people do not interrupt the exercise habit, the weather is bad can be changed to indoor exercise.When the elderly exercise, in the premise of ensuring safety, should pay attention to strengthen the balance ability, muscle strength, endurance and other functional exercise.For example, taijiquan, baduanjin, quadriceps contraction and other functional exercise.The 2nd, adjust the posture that walk appropriately, tiptoe is slightly outward, can make center of gravity is steadier, also can accompany by family when necessary walk.All in all, falling is no small thing for the elderly.Especially in the middle of winter, slippery ground increases the risk of falls for the elderly.Remind each senior and their caregivers to take the initiative to prevent falls.Jilin Daily Production planning: Jiang Zhongxiao author: Jilin Daily all media reporter Zhang Tianyi editor: Yu Yue